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Actuary: A mathematician working for a health insurance company responsible for determining what premiums the company needs to charge based in large part on claims paid verses amounts of premium generated. Their job is to make sure a block of business is priced to be profitable.

Admitting Privileges: The right granted to a doctor to admit patients to a particular hospital.

Advocacy: Any activity done to help a person or group to get something the person or group needs or wants.

Agent: Licensed salespersons who represent one or more health insurance companies and present their products to consumers.

Association: A group with members who prefer to seek certain services together. Often, associations can offer individual health insurance plans specially designed for their members.

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Benefit: Amount payable by the insurance company to a claimant, assignee, or beneficiary when an insured person suffers a loss.

Brand-name drug: Prescription drugs marketed with a specific brand name by the company that manufactures it; usually this is the company that also develops and patents it. When patents run out, other companies market generic versions of many popular drugs at lower cost. Check your insurance plan to see if coverage differs between name brand and their generic twins.

Broker: Alicensed insurance salesperson who obtains quotes and plans from multiple sources and provides this information to clients.

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Capitation: Capitation represents a set dollar limit that you or your employer pay to a health maintenance organization (HMO), regardless of how much you use (or don't use) the services offered by the health maintenance providers.

Carrier: The insurance company or HMO offering a health plan.

Case Management: Case management is a system embraced by employers and insurance companies to ensure that individuals receive appropriate, reasonable health care services.

Certificate of Insurance: The printed description of the benefits and coverage provisions, which forms the contract between the carrier and the customer. The description discloses what it covered, what is not, and dollar limits.

Claim: A request by an individual (or by a provider) to an individual's insurance company for the payment of services obtained from a health care professional.

COBRA: Federal legislation that allows certain employees to continue to purchase health insurance for up to 18 months in the event of unemployment or coverage termination. If you work for an insured employer of 20 or more employees, you may be eligible. For more information, visit the Department of Labor.

Co-Insurance: Co-insurance refers to money that an individual is required to pay for services after a deductible has been paid. In some health care plans, co-insurance is called "co-payment." Co-insurance is often specified by a percentage. For example, the employee pays 20 percent toward the charges for a service and the employer or insurance company pays 80 percent.

Co-Payment: Co-payment is a predetermined (flat) fee that an individual pays for health care services, in addition to what the insurance covers. For example, some HMOs require a $10 "co-payment" for each office visit, regardless of the type or level of services provided during the visit. Co-payments are not usually specified by percentages.

Credit for Prior Coverage: This is something that may or may not apply when you switch employers or insurance plans. A pre-existing condition waiting period met under while you were under an employer's (qualifying) coverage can be honored by your new plan if any interruption in the coverage between the two plans meets state guidelines.

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Deductible: The amount an individual must pay for health care expenses before insurance (or a self-insured company) covers the costs. Often, insurance plans are based on yearly deductible amounts.

Denial of Claim: Refusal by an insurance company to honor a request by an individual (or his or her provider) to pay for health care services obtained from a health care professional.

Dependents: Spouse and/or unmarried children (whether natural, adopted or step) of an insured.

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Effective Date: The date your insurance coverage will begin. You are not covered until the policy's effective date.

Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs): Mental health counseling services that are sometimes offered by insurance companies or employers. Typically, individuals or employers do not have to pay for EAP services directly.

Exclusions: Medical services that are not covered by an individual's insurance policy.

Explanation of Benefits: The insurance company's written explanation to a claim, showing what they paid and what the client must pay. If appropriate, the explanation is accompanied by a benefits check.

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Generic Drug: A "twin" to a "brand name drug" once the brand name company's patent has run out and other drug companies are allowed to sell a duplicate of the original. Since generic drugs are cheaper, most prescription and health plans reward clients for choosing them.

Group Insurance: Coverage through an employer or other entity that covers all individuals in the group.

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Health Care Decision Counseling: Services, sometimes provided by insurance companies or employers, which help individuals weigh the benefits, risks, and costs of medical tests and treatments. Unlike case management, health care decision counseling is non-judgmental. The goal of health care decision counseling is to help individuals make more informed choices about their health and medical care needs, and to help them make decisions that are right for the individual's unique set of circumstances.

Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs): Health Maintenance Organizations represent "pre-paid" or "capitated" insurance plans in which individuals or their employers pay a fixed monthly fee for services, instead of a separate charge for each visit or service. The monthly fees remain the same, regardless of types or levels of services provided, Services are provided by physicians who are employed by, or under contract with, the HMO. HMOs vary in design. Depending on the type of the HMO, services may be provided in a central facility or in a physician's own office (as with IPAs.)

HIPAA: A Federal law passed in 1996 that allows persons to qualify immediately for comparable health insurance coverage when they change their employment or relationships. It also creates the authority to mandate the use of standards for the electronic exchange of health care data; to specify what medical and administrative code sets should be used within those standards; to require the use of national identification systems for health care patients, providers, payers (or plans), and employers (or sponsors); and to specify the types of measures required to protect the security and privacy of personally identifiable health care. Full name is "The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996."

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Indemnity Health Plan: Indemnity health insurance plans are also called "fee-for-service." These are the types of plans that primarily existed before the rise of HMOs, IPAs, and PPOs. With indemnity plans, the individual pays a pre-determined percentage of the cost of health care services, and the insurance company (or self-insured employer) pays the other percentage. For example, an individual might pay 20 percent for services and the insurance company pays 80 percent. The fees for services are defined by the providers and vary from physician to physician. Indemnity health plans offer individuals the freedom to choose their health care professionals.

Independent Practice Associations: IPAs are similar to HMOs, except that individuals receive care in a physician's own office, rather than in an HMO facility.

Individual Health Insurance: Health insurance coverage on an individual, not group, basis. The premium is usually higher for individual health insurance than for a group policy, but individuals do not always qualify for a group plan.

In-network: Providers or health care facilities which are part of a health plan's network of providers with which it has negotiated a discount. Insured individuals usually pay less when using an in-network provider because those networks provide services at lower cost to contracted insurance companies.

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Lifetime Maximum Benefit (or Maximum Lifetime Benefit): The maximum amount a health plan will pay in benefits to an insured individual during that individual's lifetime.

Limitations: A limit on the amount of benefits paid out for a particular covered expense, as disclosed on the Certificate of Insurance.

Long-Term Care Policy: Insurance policies that cover specified services for a specified time period. Long-term care policies (and their prices) vary significantly. Covered services often include nursing care, home health care services, and custodial care.

Long-term Disability Insurance: Pays an insured a percentage of their monthly earnings if they become disabled.

LOS: LOS refers to the length of stay. It is a term used by insurance companies, case managers, and employers to describe the amount of time an individual stays in a hospital or in-patient facility.

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Managed Care: A medical delivery system that attempts to manage the quality and cost of medical services that individuals receive. Most managed care systems offer HMOs and PPOs that individuals are encouraged to use for their health care services. Some managed care plans attempt to improve health quality by emphasizing prevention of disease.

Maximum Dollar Limit: The maximum amount of money that an insurance company (or self-insured company) will pay for claims within a specific time period. Maximum dollar limits vary greatly. They may be based on, or specified in terms of, types of illnesses or types of services. Sometimes they are specified in a term of a lifetime or in a term of one year.

Medigap Insurance Policies: Medigap insurance is offered by private insurance companies, not the government. It is not the same as Medicare or Medicaid. These policies are designed to pay for some of the costs that Medicare does not cover.

Multiple Employer Trust (MET): A trust comprising multiple small employers in the same industry, formed for the purpose of purchasing group health insurance or establishing a self-funded plan at a lower cost than would be available to each of the employers individually.

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Network: A group of doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers contracted to provide services to insurance companies' customers for less than their usual fees. Provider networks can cover a large geographic market or a wide range of health care services. Insured individuals typically pay less for using a network provider.

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Open-ended HMOs: HMOs that allow enrolled individuals to use out-of-plan providers and still receive partial or full coverage and payment for the professional's services under a traditional indemnity plan.

Out-of-Plan (Out-of-Network): This phrase usually refers to physicians, hospitals or other health care providers who are considered nonparticipants in an insurance plan (usually an HMO or PPO). Depending on an individual's health insurance plan, expenses incurred by services provided by out-of-plan health professionals may not be covered, or covered only in part, by an individual's insurance company.

Out-Of-Pocket Maximum: A predetermined limited amount of money that an individual must pay out of their own savings before an insurance company or (self-insured employer) will pay 100 percent for an individual's health care expenses.

Outpatient: An individual (patient) who receives health care services (such as surgery) on an outpatient basis; that is, they do not stay overnight in a hospital or inpatient facility. Many insurance companies have identified a list of tests and procedures (including surgery) that will not be covered (paid for) unless they are performed on an outpatient basis. The term outpatient is also used synonymously with ambulatory to describe health care facilities where procedures are performed.

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Plan Administration: Supervision of the details and routine activities of installing and running a health plan. This includes answering questions, enrolling individuals, billing and collecting premiums, and other duties.

Pre-Admission Certification: Also called pre-certification review, or pre-admission review, this is the approval given by a case manager or insurance company representative (usually a nurse) for a person to be admitted to a hospital or in-patient facility. Granted prior to admittance, pre-admission certification must often be obtained by the individual. Sometimes, however, physicians will contact the appropriate approver. The goal of pre-admission certification is to ensure that individuals are not exposed to inappropriate health care services (services that are medically unnecessary).

Pre-Admission Review: A review of an individual's health care status or condition, prior to an individual's admission to an inpatient facility, such as a hospital. Pre-admission reviews are often conducted by case managers or insurance company representatives (usually nurses) in cooperation with the individual, his or her physician or health care provider, and a hospital.

Preadmission Testing: Medical tests that are completed for an individual prior to being admitted to a hospital or inpatient health care facility.

Pre-existing Conditions: A medical condition that is excluded from coverage by an insurance company because the condition was believed to exist prior to the individual obtaining a policy from the particular insurance company.

Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs): You and/or your employer receive discounted rates if you agree to use doctors from a pre-selected group. Under a PPO, If you use a physician outside the PPO plan, you must pay more for that medical care.

Primary Care Provider (PCP): A health care professional (usually a physician) who is responsible for monitoring an individual's overall health care needs. Typically, a PCP serves as a "quarterback" for an individual's medical care, referring the individual to more specialized physicians for specialist care.

Provider: Provider is a term used for health professionals who provide health care services. Sometimes, the term refers only to physicians. Often, however, the term also refers to other health care professionals such as hospitals, nurse practitioners, chiropractors, physical therapists, and others offering specialized health care services.

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Reasonable and Customary Fees: The average fee charged by a particular type of health care practitioner within a geographic area. The term is often used by medical plans as the amount of money they will approve for a specific test or procedure. If the fees are higher than the approved amount, the individual receiving the service is responsible for paying the difference. Sometimes, however, if an individual questions his or her physician about the fee, the provider will reduce the charge to the amount that the insurance company has defined as reasonable and customary.

Rider: A modification made to a Certificate of Insurance regarding the clauses and provisions of a policy (usually adding or excluding coverage).

Risk: The chance of loss, the degree of probability of loss, or the amount of possible loss to the insuring company. For an individual, risk describes the likelihood of surgical complications, medication side effects, exposure to infection, or the chance of suffering a medical problem because of a lifestyle or other choice. For example, an individual increases his or her risk of getting cancer if he or she chooses to smoke cigarettes.

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Second Opinion: It is a medical opinion provided by a second physician or medical expert after the first physician provides a diagnosis or recommends surgery to an individual. Individuals are encouraged to obtain second opinions whenever a physician recommends surgery or presents an individual with a serious medical diagnosis.

Second Surgical Opinion: These are now standard benefits in many health insurance plans. It is an opinion provided by a second physician after one physician recommends surgery to an individual.

Short-Term Disability: An injury or illness that keeps a person from working for a short time. The definition of short-term disability (and the time period over which coverage extends) varies among insurance companies and employers. Short-term disability insurance coverage is designed to protect an individual's full or partial wages during a time of injury or illness (that is not work-related) that would prohibit the individual from working.

Short-Term Medical: Temporary coverage for an individual for a short period of time, usually a term between 30 days and six months.

Small Employer Group: Generally means groups with 199 or fewer employees. The definition may vary between states.

State Mandated Benefits: When a state passes laws requiring that health insurance plans include specific benefits.

Stop-loss: The point at which you've paid 100 percent of your out-of-pocket eligible expenses and at which the insurance begins to pay eligible expenses at 100%. Stop-loss is reached when an insured individual has paid the deductible and reached the out-of-pocket maximum amount of co-insurance.

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Triple-Option: Insurance plans that offer three options from which an individual may choose. Usually, the three options are traditional indemnity, HMO, and PPO.

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Underwriter: The company that assumes responsibility for the risk, issues insurance policies, and receives premiums.

Usual, Customary and Reasonable (UCR) or Covered Expenses: Charges for services and supplies which are medically necessary, recommended by a doctor, or required for treatment.

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Waiting Period: A period of time when you are not covered by insurance for a particular problem.

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